Competition policies have recently come under political pressure around the word. The criticism is particularly fierce in Europe, after a series of high-level decisions blocked mergers between European companies. Countries such as France and Germany have called existing competition policies ineffective and are now promoting industrial and trade policies. Industrial policies, which some consider to be more effective, would either integrate or substitute current competition policies. This panel will analyse the challenges of creating and implementing effective competition policies in a globalised world, where multilateralism is increasingly threatened by bilateralism.

Chair: Giacomo Calzolari, Professor of Economics, EUI